Why You Should Always Use HTTPS

Two keys, crossedThis first appeared on Mashable in May 2011. Five years later, the SSL Pulse notes only 76% of the top 200K web sites fully support TLS 1.2, with a quarter of them still supporting the egregiously insecure SSLv3. While Let’s Encrypt makes TLS certs more attainable, administrators must also maintain their sites’ TLS configuration to use the best protocols and ciphers available. Check out www.ssllabs.com to test your site.


The next time you visit a cafe to sip coffee and surf on some free Wi-Fi, try an experiment: Log in to some of your usual sites. Then, with a smile, hand the keyboard over to a stranger. Now walk away for 20 minutes. Remember to pick up your laptop before you leave.

While the scenario may seem silly, it essentially happens each time you visit a website that doesn’t bother to encrypt the traffic to your browser — in other words, sites using HTTP instead of HTTPS.

The encryption within HTTPS is intended to provide benefits like confidentiality, integrity and identity. Your information remains confidential from prying eyes because only your browser and the server can decrypt the traffic. Integrity protects the data from being modified without your knowledge. We’ll address identity in a bit.

There’s an important distinction between tweeting to the world or sharing thoughts on Facebook and having your browsing activity going over unencrypted HTTP. You intentionally share tweets, likes, pics and thoughts. The lack of encryption means you’re unintentionally exposing the controls necessary to share such things. It’s the difference between someone viewing your profile and taking control of your keyboard.

The Spy Who Sniffed Me

We most often hear about hackers attacking websites, but it’s just as easy and lucrative to attack your browser. One method is to deliver malware or lull someone into visiting a spoofed site (phishing). Those techniques don’t require targeting a specific victim. They can be launched scattershot from anywhere on the web, regardless of the attacker’s geographic or network relationship to the victim. Another kind of attack, sniffing, requires proximity to the victim but is no less potent or worrisome.

Sniffing attacks watch the traffic to and from the victim’s web browser. (In fact, all of the computer’s traffic is visible, but we’re only worried about websites for now.) The only catch is that the attacker needs to be able to see the communication channel. The easiest way for an attacker to do this is to sit next to one of the end points, either the web server or the web browser. Unencrypted wireless networks — think of cafes, libraries, and airports — make it easy to find the browser’s end point because the traffic is visible to anyone who can obtain that network’s signal.

Encryption defeats sniffing attacks by concealing the traffic’s meaning from all except those who know the secret to decrypting it. The traffic remains visible to the sniffer, but it appears as streams of random bytes rather than HTML, links, cookies and passwords. The trick is understanding where to apply encryption in order to protect your data. For example, wireless networks can be encrypted, but the history of wireless security is laden with egregious mistakes. And it’s not necessarily the correct solution.

The first wireless encryption scheme was called WEP. It was the security equivalent of pig latin. It seems secret at first. Then the novelty wears off once you realize everyone knows what ixnay on the ottenray means, even if they don’t know the movie reference. WEP required a password to join the network, but the protocol’s poor encryption exposed enough hints about the password that someone with a wireless sniffer could reverse engineer. This was a fatal flaw, because the time required to crack the password was a fraction of that needed to blindly guess the password with a brute force attack: a matter of hours (or less) instead of weeks.

Security improvements were attempted for Wi-Fi, but many turned out to be failures since they just metaphorically replaced pig latin with an obfuscation more along the lines of Klingon (or Quenya, depending on your fandom leanings). The problem was finding an encryption scheme that protected the password well enough that attackers would be forced to fall back to the inefficient brute force attack. The security goal is a Tower of Babel, with languages that only your computer and the wireless access point could understand — and which don’t drop hints for attackers. Protocols like WPA2 accomplish this far better than WEP ever did.

Whereas you’ll find it easy to set up WPA2 on your home network, you’ll find it sadly missing on the ubiquitous public Wi-Fi services of cafes and airplanes. They usually avoid encryption altogether. Even still, encrypted networks that use a single password for access merely reduce the pool of attackers from everyone to everyone who knows the password (which may be a larger number than you expect).

We’ve been paying attention to public spaces, but the problem spans all kinds of networks. In fact, sniffing attacks are just as feasible in corporate environments. They only differ in terms of the type of threat, and who might be carrying out the sniffing attack. Fundamentally, HTTPS is required to protect your data.

S For Secure

Sites that don’t use HTTPS judiciously are crippling the privacy controls you thought were protecting your data. Websites’ adoption of opt-in sharing and straightforward privacy settings are laudable. Those measures restrict the amount of information about you that leaks from websites (at least they’re supposed to). Yet they have no bearing on sniffing attacks if the site doesn’t encrypt traffic. This is why sites like Facebook and Twitter recently made HTTPS always available to users who care to turn it on — it’s off by default.

If my linguistic metaphors have left you with no understanding of the technical steps to execute sniffing attacks, you can quite easily execute these attacks with readily-available tools. A recent one is a plugin you can add to your Firefox browser. The plugin, called Firesheep, enables mouse-click hacking for sites like Amazon, Facebook, Twitter and others. The creation of the plugin demonstrates that technical attacks can be put into the hands of anyone who wishes to be mischievous, unethical, or malicious.

To be clear, sniffing attacks don’t need to grab your password in order to impersonate you. Web apps that use HTTPS for authentication protect your password. If they use regular HTTP after you log in, they’re not protecting your privacy or your temporary identity.

We need to take an existential diversion here to distinguish between “you” as the person visiting a website and the “you” that the website knows. Websites speak to browsers. They don’t (yet?) reach beyond the screen to know that you are in fact who you say you are. The username and password you supply for the login page are supposed to prove your identity because you are ostensibly the only one who knows them. So that you only need authenticate once, the website assigns a cookie to your browser. From then on, that cookie is your identity: a handful of bits.

These identifying cookies need to be a shared secret — a value known to no one but your browser and the website. Otherwise, someone else could use your cookie value to impersonate you.

Mobile apps are ignoring the improvements that web browsers have made in protecting our privacy and security. Some of the fault lies with the HTML and HTTP that underlies the web. HTTP becomes creaky once you try to implement strong authentication mechanisms on top of it, mostly because of our friend the cookie. Some fault lies with app developers. For example, Twitter provides a setting to ensure you always access the web site with HTTPS. However, third-party apps that use Twitter’s APIs might not be so diligent. While your password might still be protected with HTTPS, the app might fall back to HTTP for all other traffic — including the cookie that identifies you.

Google suffered embarrassment recently when 99% of its Android-based phones were shown to be vulnerable to impersonation attacks. The problem is compounded by the sheer number of phones and the difficulty of patching them. Furthermore, the identifying cookies (authTokens) were used for syncing, which means they’d traverse the network automatically regardless of the user’s activity. This is exactly the problem that comes with lack of encryption, cookies, and users who want to be connected anywhere they go.

Notice that there’s been no mention of money or credit cards being sniffed. Who cares about those when you can compromise someone’s email account? Email is almost universally used as a password reset mechanism. If you can read someone’s email, then you can obtain the password for just about any website they use, from gaming to banking to corporate environments. Most of this information has value.

S For Sometimes

Sadly, it seems that money and corporate embarrassment motivates protective measures far more often than privacy concerns. Some websites have started to implement a more rigorous enforcement of HTTPS connections called HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS). Paypal, whose users have long been victims of money-draining phishing attacks, was one of the first sites to use HSTS to prevent malicious sites from fooling browsers into switching to HTTP or spoofing pages. Like any good security measure, HSTS is transparent to the user. All you need is a browser that supports it (most do) and a website to require it (most don’t).

Improvements like HSTS should be encouraged. HTTPS is inarguably an important protection. However, the protocol has its share of weaknesses and determined attackers. Plus, HTTPS only protects against certain types of attacks; it has no bearing on cross-site scripting, SQL injection, or a myriad of other vulnerabilities. The security community is neither ignorant of these problems nor lacking in solutions. Yet the roll out of better protocols like DNSSEC has been glacial. Never the less, HTTPS helps as much today as it will tomorrow. The lock icon on your browser that indicates a site uses HTTPS may be minuscule, but the protection it affords is significant.


Many of the attacks and privacy references noted in the article may seem dated, but they are no less relevant.

DNSSEC has indeed been glacial. It took Google until January 2013 to support it. Cloudflare reported in October 2014 that wide adoption remained “in its infancy.”

And perhaps a final irony? At the time this article first appeared, WordPress didn’t support HTTPS for custom domain names, e.g. deadliestwebattacks.com. To this day, Mashable still won’t serve the article over HTTPS without a hostname mismatch error.

RSA APJ 2014, CDS-W07 Slides

Here are the slides for my presentation, Building and Breaking Privacy Barriers, at this year’s RSA Asia Pacific and Japan conference in Singapore.

The slides convey more theory than practical examples, but the ideas should come across without too much confusion. I expect to revisit the idea of a Rot network (a play on Tor) and toy with an implementation. Instead of blocking tracking bugs, the concept is to reduce their utility by sharing them across unrelated browsers — essentially polluting the data.

In any case, with this presentation over and out of the way, it’s time to start working on more articles!

RSA USA 2014, DSP-R04A Slides

Here are the slides for my presentation, DSP-R04A Is Your Browser a User Agent or a Double Agent?, at this year’s RSA USA conference in San Francisco.

This departed from a security focus into the realm of privacy, noting how browsers struggle (or not) against tracking mechanisms and how various organizations build views of web site visitors.

The Rank Decay Contingency

The idea: Penalize a site’s ranking in search engine results if the site suffers a security breach.

Now, for some background and details…

In December 2013 Target revealed that it had suffered a significant breach that exposed over 40 million credit card numbers. A month later it upped the count to 70 million and noted the stolen information included customers’ names, mailing addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses.

Does anybody care?

Or rather, what do they care about? Sure, the media likes stories about hacking, especially ones that affect millions of their readers. The security community marks it as another failure to point to. Banks will have to reissue cards and their fraud departments be more vigilant. Target will bear some costs. But will customers really avoid it to any degree?

Years ago, in 2007, a different company disclosed its discovery of a significant breach that affected at least 40 million credit cards. Check out the following graph of the stock price of the company (TJX Holdings) from 2006 to the end of 2013.

TJX Price 2006-2014
TJX Price 2006-2014

Notice the dip in 2009 and the nice angle of recovery. The company’s stock didn’t take a hit until 2009 when TJX announced terms of its settlement. The price nose-dived, only to steadily recover as consumers stopped caring and spent money (amongst any number of arbitrary reasons, markets not being as rational or objective as one might wish).

Consider who bears the cost of breaches like these. Ultimately, merchants pay higher fees to accept credit cards, consumers pay higher fees to have cards. And, yes, TJX paid in lost valuation over a rather long period (roughly a year), but only when the settlement was announced — not when the breach occurred. The settlement suggests that lax security has consequences, but a breach in and of itself might not.

Truth of Consequences

But what if a company weighs the costs of a breach as more favorable than the costs of increasing security efforts? What if a company doesn’t even deal with financial information and therefore has no exposure to losses related to fraud? What about companies that deal in personal information or data, like Snapchat?

Now check out another chart. The following data from Quantcast shows daily visitors to a lyrics site. The number is steady until one day — boom! — visits drop by over 60% when the site is relegated to the backwaters of search results.

RapGenius Quantcast Measure

Google caught the site (Rap Genius) undertaking sociopathic search optimization techniques like spreading link spam. Not only does spammy, vapid content annoy users, but Google ostensibly suffers by losing users who flee poor quality results for alternate engines. (How much impact it has on advertising revenue is a different matter.) Google loses revenue if advertisers care about where the users are or they perceive the value of users to be low.

The two previous charts have different time scales and measure different dimensions. But there’s an underlying sense that they reflect values that companies care about.

Rank Decay

Think back to the Target breach. (Or TJX, or any one of many breaches reported over the years, whether they affected passwords or credit cards.)

What if a penalty affected a site’s ranking in search results? For example, it could be a threshold for the “best” page in which it could appear, e.g. no greater than the fourth page (where pages are defined as blocks of N results, say 10). Or an absolute rank, e.g. no higher than the 40th entry in a list.

The penalty would decay over time at a rate, linear or exponential, based on any number of mathematical details. For example, a page-based penalty might decay by one page per month. A list-based penalty might decay by one on a weekly basis.

The decay rate could be influenced by steps the site takes to remediate the underlying problem that led to the breach, improvements to a privacy policy, fines, or covering costs related to fraud as a result of the breach.

If the search engines drives a significant portion of traffic — that results in revenue or influences valuation — then this creates an incentive for the site to maintain strong security. It’s like PCI with different teeth. It might incentivize the site to react promptly to breaches. At least one hopes.

But such a proposal could have insidious consequences.

Rank Implications

Suppose a site were able to merely buy advertising to artificially offset the rank penalty? After a breach you could have a search engine that’d love to penalize the “natural” ranking of a site only to rake in money as the site buys advertising to overcome the penalty. It’s not a smart idea to pay an executioner per head, let alone combine the role with judge and jury.

A penalty that a company fears might be one for which it suppresses the penalty’s triggers. Keeping a breach secret is a disservice to consumers. And companies subject to the S.E.C. may be required to disclose such events. But rules (and penalties) need to be clear in order to minimize legal maneuvering through loopholes.

The proposal also implies that a search engine has a near monopoly on directing traffic. Yes, I’m talking about Google. The hand waving about “search engines” is supposed to include sites like Yahoo! and Bing, even DuckDuckGo. But if you’re worried about one measure, it’s likely the Google PageRank. This is a lot of power for a company that may wish to direct traffic to its own services (like email, shopping, travel, news, etc.) in preference to competing ones.

It could also be that the Emperor wears no clothes. Google search and advertisements may not be the ultimate arbiter of traffic that turns into purchases. Strong, well-established sites may find that the traffic that drives engagement and money comes just as well from alternate sources like social media. Then again, losing any traffic source may be something no site wants to suffer.

Target is just the most recent example of breaches that will not end. Even so, Target demonstrated several positive actions before and after the breach:

– Transparency — periodic updates on breach details, remediation steps, complaint process.

– A clear privacy policy — written in accessible language (i.e. avoids a legal style that, however accurate, may be too dense, misleading, or ambiguous), including a summary of changes.

Thankfully, there were no denials, diminishing comments, or signs of incompetence on the part of Target. Breaches are inevitable for complex, distributed systems. Beyond prevention, goals should be minimizing their time to discovery and maximizing their containment.

And whether this rank idea decays from indifference or infeasibility, its sentiment should persist.

Audit Accounts, Partition Passwords, Stay Secure

It’s a new year, so it’s time to start counting days until we hear about the first database breach of 2014 to reveal a few million passwords. Before that inevitable compromise happens, take the time to clean up your web accounts and passwords. Don’t be a prisoner of bad habits.

It’s good Operations Security (OpSec) to avoid password reuse across your accounts. Partition your password choices so that each account on each web site uses a distinct value. This prevents an attacker who compromises one password (hashed or otherwise) from jumping to another account that uses the same credentials.
Penny-Farthing
At the very least, your email, Facebook, and Twitter accounts should have different passwords. Protecting email is especially important because so many sites rely on it for password resets.

And if you’re still using the password kar120c I salute your sci-fi dedication, but pity your password creation skills.

Start with a list of all the sites for which you have an account. In order to make this easier to review in the future, create a specific bookmarks folder for these in your browser.

Each account should have a unique password. The latest Safari, for example, can suggest these for you.

Next, consider improving account security through the following steps.

Consider Using OAuth — Passwords vs. Privacy

Many sites now support OAuth for managing authentication. Essentially, OAuth is a protocol in which a site asks a provider (like Facebook or Twitter) to verify a user’s identity without having to reveal that user’s password to the inquiring site. This way, the site can create user accounts without having to store passwords. Instead, the site ties your identity to a token that the provider verifies. You prove your identify to Facebook (with a password) and Facebook proves to the site that you are who you claim to be.

If a site allows you to migrate an existing account from a password-based authentication scheme to an OAuth-based one, make the switch. Otherwise, keep this option in mind whenever you create an account in the future.

But there’s a catch. A few, actually. OAuth shifts a site’s security burden from password management to token management and correct protocol implementation. It also introduces privacy considerations related to centralizing auth to a provider as well as how much providers share data.

Be wary about how sites mix authentication and authorization. Too many sites ask for access to your data in exchange for using something like Facebook Connect. Under OAuth, the site can assume your identity to the degree you’ve authorized, from reading your list of friends to posting status updates on your behalf.

Grant the minimum permissions whenever a site requests access (i.e. authorization) to your data. Weigh this decision against your desired level of privacy and security. For example, a site or mobile app might insist on access to your full contacts list or the ability to send Tweets. If this is too much for you, then forego OAuth and set up a password-based account.

(The complexity of OAuth has many implications for users and site developers. We’ll return to this topic in future articles.)

Two-Factor Auth — One Equation in Two Unknowns

Many sites now support two-factor auth for supplementing your password with a temporary passcode. Use it. This means that access to your account is contingent on both knowing a shared secret (the password you’ve given the site) and being able to generate a temporary code.

Your password should be known only to you because that’s how you prove your identity. Anyone who knows that password — whether it’s been shared or stolen — can use it to assume your identity within that account.

A second factor is intended to be a stronger proof of your identity by tying it to something more unique to you, such as a smartphone. For example, a site may send a temporary passcode via text message or rely on a dedicated app to generate one. (Such an app must already have been synchronized with the site; it’s another example of a shared secret.) In either case, you’re proving that you have access to the smartphone tied to the account. Ideally, no one else is able to receive those text messages or generate the same sequence of passcodes.

The limited lifespan of a passcode is intended to reduce the window of opportunity for brute force attacks. Imagine an attacker knows the account’s static password. There’s nothing to prevent them from guessing a six-digit passcode. However, they only have a few minutes to guess one correct value out of a million. When the passcode changes, the attacker has to throw away all previous guesses and start the brute force anew.

The two factor auth concept is typically summarized as the combination of “something you know” with “something you possess”. It really boils down to combining “something easy to share” with “something hard to share”.

Beware Password Recovery — It’s Like Shouting Secret in a Crowded Theater

If you’ve forgotten your password, use the site’s password reset mechanism. And cross your fingers that the account recovery process is secure. If an attacker can successfully exploit this mechanism, then it doesn’t matter how well-chosen your password was (or possibly even if you’re relying on two-factor auth).

If the site emails you your original password, then the site is insecure and its developers are incompetent. It implies the password has not even been hashed.

If the site relies on security questions, consider creating unique answers for each site. This means you’ll have to remember dozens of question/response pairs. Make sure to encrypt this list with something like the OS X Keychain.

Review Your OAuth Grants

For sites you use as OAuth providers (like Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Google+, etc.), review the third-party apps to which you’ve granted access. You should recognize the sites that you’ve just gone through a password refresh for. Delete all the others.

Where possible, reduce permissions to a minimum. You’re relying on this for authentication, not information leakage.

Use HTTPS

Universal adoption of HTTPS remains elusive. Fortunately, sites like Facebook and Twitter have set this by default. If the site has an option to force HTTPS, use it. After all, if you’re going to rely on these sites for OAuth, then the security of these accounts becomes paramount.

Maintain Constant Vigilance

Watch out for fake OAuth prompts, such as windows that spoof Facebook and Twitter.
Keep your browser secure.
Keep your system up to date.
Set a reminder to go through this all over again a year from now — if not earlier.

Otherwise, you risk losing more than one account should your password be exposed among the millions. You are not a number, you’re a human being.

Soylent Grün ist Menschenfleisch

Silicon Valley green is made of people. This is succinctly captured in the phrase: When you don’t pay for the product, the product is you. It explains how companies attain multi-billion dollar valuations despite offering their services for free. They promise revenue through the glorification of advertising.

Investors argue that high valuations reflect a company’s potential for growth. That growth comes from attracting new users. Those users in turn become targets for advertising. And sites, once bastions of clean design, become concoctions of user-generated content, ad banners, and sponsored features.

Population Growth

Sites measure their popularity by a single serving size: the user. Therefore, one way to interpret a company’s valuation is in its price per user. That is, how many calories can a site gain from a single serving? How many servings must it consume to become a hulking giant of the web?
Dystopian Books
You know where this is going.

The movie Soylent Green presented a future where a corporation provided seemingly beneficent services to a hungry world. It wasn’t the only story with themes of overpopulation and environmental catastrophe to emerge from the late ’60s and early ’70s. The movie was based on the novel Make Room! Make Room!, by Harry Harrison. And it had peers in John Brunner’s Stand on Zanzibar (and The Sheep Look Up) and Ursula K. Le Guin’s The Lathe of Heaven. These imagined worlds contained people powerful and poor. And they all had to feed.

A Furniture Arrangement

To sell is to feed. To feed is to buy.

In Soylent Green, Detective Thorn (Charlton Heston) visits an apartment to investigate the murder of a corporation’s board member, i.e. someone rich. He is unsurprised to encounter a woman there and, already knowing the answer, asks if she’s “the furniture.” It’s trivial to decipher this insinuation about a woman’s role in a world afflicted by overpopulation, famine, and disparate wealth. That an observation made in a movie forty years ago about a future ten years hence rings true today is distressing.

We are becoming products of web sites as we become targets for ads. But we are also becoming parts of those ads. Becoming furnishings for fancy apartments in a dystopian New York.

Women have been components of advertising for ages, selected as images relevant to manipulating a buyer no matter the irrelevance of their image to the product. That’s not changing. What is changing is some sites’ desire to turn all users into billboards. They want to create endorsements by you that target your friends. Your friends are as much a commodity as your information.

In this quest to build advertising revenue, sites also distill millions of users’ activity into individual recommendations of what they might want to buy or predictions of what they might be searching for.

And what a sludge that distillation produces.

There may be the occasional welcome discovery from a targeted ad, but there is also an unwelcome consequence of placing too much faith in algorithms. A few suggestions can become dominant viewpoints based more on others’ voices than personal preferences. More data does not always mean more accurate data.

We should not excuse an algorithm as an impartial oracle to society. They are tuned, after all. And those adjustments may reflect the bias and beliefs of the adjusters. For example, an ad campaign created for UN Women employed a simple premise: superimpose upon pictures of women a search engine’s autocomplete suggestions for phrases related to women. The result exposes biases reinforced by the louder voices of technology. More generally, a site can grow or die based on a search engine’s ranking. An algorithm collects data through a lens. It’s as important to know where the lens is not focused as much as where it is.

There is a point where information for services is no longer a fair trade. Where apps collect the maximum information to offer the minimum functionality. There should be more of a push for apps that work on an Information-to-Functionality relationship of minimum requested for the maximum required.

Going Home

In the movie, Sol (Edward G. Robinson) talks about going Home after a long life. Throughout the movie, Home is alluded to as the ultimate, welcoming destination. It’s a place of peace and respect. Home is where Sol reveals to Detective Thorn the infamous ingredient of Soylent Green.

Web sites want to be your home on the web. You’ll find them exhorting you to make their URL your browser’s homepage.
Home Page
Web sites want your attention. They trade free services for personal information. At the very least, they want to sell your eyeballs. We’ve seen aggressive escalation of this in various privacy grabs, contact list pilfering, and weak apologies that “mistakes were made.”

More web sites and mobile apps are releasing features outright described as “creepy but cool” in the hope that the latter outweighs the former in a user’s mind. Services need not be expected to be free without some form of compensation; the Web doesn’t have to be uniformly altruistic. But there’s growing suspicion that personal information and privacy are being undervalued and under-protected by sites offering those services. There should be a balance between what a site offers to users and how much information it collects about users (and how long it keeps that information).

The Do Not Track effort fizzled, hobbled by indecision of a default setting. Browser makers have long encouraged default settings that favor stronger security, they seem to have less consensus about what default privacy settings should be.

Third-party cookies will be devoured by progress; they are losing traction within the browser and mobile apps. Safari has long blocked them by default. Chrome has not. Mozilla has considered it. Their descendants may be cookie-less tracking mechanisms, which the web titans are already investigating. This isn’t necessarily a bad thing. Done well, a tracking mechanism can be limited to an app’s sandboxed perspective as opposed to full view of a device. Such a restriction can limit the correlation of a user’s activity, thereby tipping the balance back towards privacy.

If you rely on advertising to feed your company and you do not control the browser, you risk going hungry. For example, only Chrome embeds the Flash plugin. A plugin that eternally produces vulnerabilities while coincidentally playing videos for a revenue-generating site.

Lightbeam ExampleThere are few means to make the browser an agent that prioritizes a user’s desires over a site’s. The Ghostery plugin is an active counteraction to tracking; it’s available for all the major browsers. Mozilla’s Lightbeam does not block tracking mechanisms by default; it reveals how interconnected tracking has become due to ubiquitous cookies.

Browsers are becoming more secure, but they need a site’s cooperation to protect personal information. At the very least, sites should be using HTTPS to protect traffic as it flows from browser to server. To do so is laudable yet insufficient for protecting data. And even this positive step moves slowly. Privacy on mobile devices moves perhaps even more slowly. The recent iOS 7 finally forbids apps from accessing a device’s unique identifier, while Android struggles to offer comprehensive tools.

The browser is Home. Apps are Home. These are places where processing takes on new connotations. This is where our data becomes their food.

Soylent Green’s year 2022 approaches. Humanity must know.

Plugins Stand Out

A minor theme in my recent B-Sides SF presentation was the stagnancy of innovation since HTML4 was finalized in December 1999. New programming patterns emerged over that time, only to be hobbled by the outmoded spec. To help recall that era I scoured archive.org for ancient curiosities of the last millennium. (Like Geocities’ announcement of 2MB of free hosting space.) One item I came across was a Netscape advisory regarding a Java bytecode vulnerability — in March 1996.

March 1996 Java Bytecode Vulnerability

Almost twenty years later Java still plagues browsers with continuous critical patches released month after month after month, including March 2013.

Java: Write none, uninstall everywhere.

The primary complaint against browser plugins is not their legacy of security problems (the list of which is exhausting to read). Nor that Java is the only plugin to pick on. Flash has its own history of releasing nothing but critical updates. The greater issue is that even a secure plugin lives outside the browser’s Same Origin Policy (SOP).

When plugins exist outside the security and privacy controls enforced by browsers they weaken the browsing experience. It’s true that plugins aren’t completely independent of these controls, their instantiation and usage with regard to the DOM still falls under the purview of SOP. However, the ways that plugins extend a browser (such as network and file access) are rife with security and privacy pitfalls.

For one example, Flash’s Local Storage Object (LSO) was easily abused as an “evercookie” because it was unaffected by clearing browser cookies and even how browsers decided to accept cookies or not. Yes, it’s still possible to abuse HTTP and HTML to establish evercookies. Even the lauded HTML5 Local Storage API could be abused in a similar manner. It’s for reasons like these that we should be as diligent about demanding “privacy patches” as much as we demand security fixes.

Unlike Flash, an HTML5 API like Local Storage is an open standard created by groups who review and balance the usability, security, and privacy implications of features designed to improve the browsing experience. Establishing a feature like Local Storage in the HTML spec and aligning it with similar concepts like cookies and security controls like SOP (or HTML5 features like CORS, CSP, etc.) makes them a superior implementation in terms of integrating with users’ expectations and browser behavior. Instead of one vendor providing a means to extend a browser, browser vendors (the number of which is admittedly dwindling) are competing with each other to implement a uniform standard.

Sure, HTML5 brings new risks and preserves old vulnerabilities in new and interesting ways, but a large responsibility for those weaknesses lies with developers who would misuse an HTML5 feature in the same way they might have misused XHR and JSONP in the past. Maybe we’ll start finding plaintext passwords in Local Storage objects, or more sophisticated XSS exploits using Web Workers and WebSockets to scour data from a compromised browser. Security ignorance takes a long time to fix. And even experienced developers are challenged by maintaining the security of complex web applications.

HTML5 promises to obviate plugins altogether. We’ll have markup to handle video, drawing, sound, more events, and more features to create engaging games and apps. Browsers will compete on the implementation and security of these features rather than be crippled by the presence of plugins out of their control.

Getting rid of plugins makes our browsers more secure, but adopting HTML5 doesn’t imply browsers and web sites become secure. There are still vulnerabilities that we can’t fix by simple application design choices like including X-Frame-Options or adopting Content Security Policy headers.

Exterminate!

It’ll be a long time before everyone’s comfortable with the Dirty Harry test. Would you click on an unknown link — better yet, scan an inscrutable QR code — with your current browser? Would you still do it with multiple tabs open to your email, bank, and social networking accounts?

Who cares if “the network is the computer” or an application lives in the “cloud” or it’s offered via something as a service? It’s your browser that’s the door to web apps and when it’s not secure, an open window to your data.

Secure Your Browser

As web users, we have little influence over the security of the sites we visit. However, we can ensure our browsers, and browsing experience, remain secure by following a few easy steps. Why not start off the year with the knowledge that your browser is better off than it was last year?

Update your browser

Chrome | Firefox | Internet Explorer | Opera | Safari
If your browser doesn’t support HTML5 content, you’re living in a technological past.
If your browser version is more than three months old, you’re living in an insecure past.
If your browser version is more than a year old, you’re infected with malware.

Consider verifying your environment with an online version check like Qualys BrowserCheck or Mozilla Plugin Check.

Enable HTTPS Always

Sites like Facebook, Google, and Twitter now use HTTPS by default. LinkedIn has an opt-in setting to force HTTPS. Demand this from others. The best protection comes from sites that implement HTTP Strict Transport Security (HSTS) and support DNSSEC. Sadly, these are scarce.
Update your bookmarks for each of these sites so you visit the https: version by default.
Encryption improves your privacy and defenses against sniffing or interception attacks when using Wi-Fi networks like those found in cafes, airports, or other public spaces.
Note that a public network that provides encrypted Wi-Fi using WEP or WPA/WPA2 with a pre-shared key doesn’t improve your privacy; anyone with the shared WEP or WPA key will be able to sniff your traffic. Shared secrets have less secrecy than you desire and more sharing than you expect.
HTTPS only works if your browser (and you!) pay attention to the certificate’s validity in the first place. Lots of mobile Apps rely on HTTPS connections, but not all of them bother to verify certificates — missing the entire point of this protocol.

Uninstall Flash

When was the last time you installed a non-critical update for Flash?
Removing Flash from your system removes a significant attack vector for malware and browser exploits. It also removes one vector for “evercookies“. (You’ll still be tracked by ad networks using other techniques.)
With Flash gone you might not be able to view some videos, but there are plenty others that use HTML5’s <video> tag.

Chrome bundles its own version of Flash, which is unaffected by the stand-alone installer (and uninstaller). You must disable it within Chrome’s settings.Chrome disable Flash

Disable Java

When was the last time you found a useful site that needed to run Java?
Disabling Java removes a significant attack vector for malware and browser exploits.
Don’t uninstall it completely, though. You’ll want it around to run Zed Attack Proxy.

Internet Explorer 10, 11IE10 Disable Java

FirefoxFirefox disable Java

OperaOpera disable Java

SafariSafari disable Java

Review Privacy Settings

Review settings for Third-Party Cookies, prefer to reject them outright.

Know how to enable the browser’s mode for “Private Browsing” (Firefox, Safari), a.k.a “Incognito Window” (Chrome), “InPrivate Browsing” (IE), “Private Window” (Opera).

Turn on Do Not Track headers. At the moment, this setting likely adds minimal improvement to your privacy. The background and controversy around this setting requires more than one article; check back for more details.

ChromeChrome Privacy Settings

FirefoxFirefox Privacy Settings

Internet ExplorerIE9 Privacy Settings

Internet Explorer 10, 11IE10 Do Not Track headerIE10 Enable Enhanced Protected Mode
(Understand benefits of Enhanced Protected Mode.)

OperaOpera Do Not TrackOpera Cookies

SafariSafari 7 Do Not Track

Safari iOS 6
Go to Settings > Safari > Accept CookiesiOS Safari Accept Cookies

Safari iOS 7
Go to Settings > Safari. Review the PRIVACY & SECURITY section.iOS Safari 7 Privacy & Security

Mobile Device Settings

iOS 6 (iPad & iPhone)
Go to Settings > General > About > AdvertisingiOS Limit Ad Tracking

iOS 7 (iPad & iPhone)
Go to Settings > Privacy > AdvertisingiOS 7 Limit Ad Tracking

Manage Your Passwords

Your email address is often the primary password recovery method for accounts on other web sites. Choose a unique password for your email account. If the credentials for another of your accounts are compromised, then the attackers will not be able to immediately expand their reach into the “master key” that is your email.

If a web site supports it, enable account recovery and login verification with a mobile device (e.g. text messages). It’s more difficult for an attacker to gain control of a physical device in your possession than an email account on the web.

Updated January 2014 with Safari 7 and iOS 7 recommendations.
Updated January 2013 with IE10 and password recommendations.

HTML5 Unbound, part 4 of 4

(The series concludes today with guesses about the future of web security. The first, second, and third parts have been published as well as the accompanying slides.)

Design, Doom & Destiny

Mobile devices and apps change they way we consume the web. Even native mobile apps connect to URLs or access web-based APIs.

Who cares about the URL anymore? From QR codes to small screens, there’s minimal real estate to show off a complete link. And all of the padlocks, green text for EVSSL certs, and similar hints are barely useful for desktop browsers.

Mobile app security is currently a nightmare of assorted markets, outright malicious apps, and poorly crafted apps. Mobile apps that interface to web sites don’t always do so securely. And it’s impossible to distinguish bad apps at a glance. Apps that interact with web APIs often employ browser-like features, not a browser. There’s a subtle, but important distinction there.

For example, Twitter’s API is accessible via HTTP or HTTPS. If you use the Twitter web site you can set your account to always use HTTPS. Sadly, that doesn’t affect how apps might use the API. The official Twitter app uses HTTPS. It also refuses to connect if it receives a certificate error. On the other hand, other apps may connect over HTTP, or use HTTPS but not bother to apply certificate validation. A year ago, in 2011, Twitter listed some third-party software projects that used OAuth and Twitter APIs. They ranged in languages from Java to C++ to PHP. Three out of four didn’t even use https:// links. The one that did use https:// didn’t bother to verify the server’s cert.

Update January 15, 2014: Twitter now requires HTTPS access to its API.

Personal data is valuable. In Silicon Valley, the dollar is made of people. We could debate the pros and cons of compliance standards like PCI for credit cards. In an age where companies have billion-dollar valuations based on their user bases, it should be evident that credit cards aren’t the only kind of data coveted by hackers and companies alike. In the last few years several companies have been forced to apologize for privacy breaches or abuse. Set aside the concern about compromise, that was behavior deemed “normal” by the companies in question. Normal until exposed to the scrutiny of the masses.

Privacy is area where HTML5 has tried to balance reasonable design with features users and devs expect from native mobile apps. Before geolocation started showing up in phones or browsers, people could still be tracked by geolocation data marked by cameras in digital photos’ EXIF information. Browser plugins have been abused to create supercookies. It was up to Flash to enforce a privacy policy for its equivalent to the cookie, the Local Shared Object. And, of course, HTML5 has the Web Storage API.

Privacy has to be an area where browsers take the lead on implementing features like providing clear controls for objects stored in a browser and privacy-related headers like Do-Not-Track. The DNT header is another example of browser developers pushing for a new technology, but meeting resistance due to technical as well as business concerns. For example, if 98% of your company’s revenue depends on tracking technologies, then you’ll be sensitive to features like this. Perhaps even reluctant to implement it.

From a design perspective, HTML5 offers many new features that make it easier for web developers to create powerful, useful apps without sacrificing security. The various specs around HTML5 even carry warnings and recommendations about security and privacy for these new technologies.

The implementation of HTML5 will occasionally run into flaws, but that’s to be expected of any large software engineering effort. The use of iframes and sharing resources across documents will likely be a source of problems. At the very least, think in terms of balancing information leakage around framed content. On one hand, it might be desirable to prevent a framed advertising banner from knowing the origin that has framed it. But for sites that aggregate functions (we use to call them mashups), this kind of parent — or child — node information might be useful. And there’s the challenge of making sure a node’s Origin attribute remains stable and correct as complex JavaScript moves it around the DOM, removes it from the DOM, or tries to keep it orphaned and running in the background.

And finally, the password problem has yet to be solved. Regardless of a site’s backend security and use of HTTPS, look how prevalent it is to send the plaintext password from browser to server. That’s begging for some kind of challenge-response that provides better confidentiality for the password. But doing so likely requires browser support and careful design so that there’s clarity around what threats a challenge-response would mitigate and those it wouldn’t. It’s unlikely phishing will disappear any time soon.

There are other positive steps towards password management in the form of OAuth and OpenID. These solutions shift the burden of authentication management from the site to a trusted third-party site. But again we could come up with new threats that this may introduce. For example, strong password security behavior reinforces the idea that you should verify that you’re typing credentials for a site into a form that is served from that site. With OAuth, we’re adjusting the behavior by showing users it’s acceptable to enter important credentials (Google, Facebook, Twitter, etc.) for an unrelated site. There are always going to be engineering problems that don’t have complete technical solutions. Even as users need to remain vigilant about protecting their passwords, developers still need to treat OAuth tokens and the site’s session tokens securely, just as they would passwords.

There are also always going to be ways that secure technologies are used insecurely. HTML5 has done a good job of providing security restrictions or security recommendations. Developers shouldn’t ignore them. Nor should developers forget key principles of secure design, from things like understanding that HTTPS everywhere is good for users’ privacy, but has no bearing on SQL injection or XSS. To maintaining authentication and authorization checks on server-side resources even if the client has similar checks.

Adopt HTML5 now. Start with leading your pages with <!doctype html>. Push your visitors to use a modern web browser. If you don’t have to support IE6, then why bother going through the pain of creating markup for an obsolete browser? Apply trivial headers that only require server-side changes. X-Frame-Options blocks clickjacking (for those using browser that support it). HSTS minimizes sniffing and intermediation threats; we’ll still need secure DNS to make it complete. We can’t just rely on browsers to become better. Sites need to keep up with security improvements. Try enabling only TLS 1.1 and 1.2. See how many sites fail for you.

HTML5 is the promethean technology of the web’s future. Preserving the security and privacy of data from a mobile app or an HTML5 web site should be the driving force behind the app’s design. The implementation of your site and how it applies HTML5’s feature to user data will determine security. Don’t rely on a standards body or browser security to do it for you.